One of the 20th centurys most influential artists, Yves Klein (French, b. Nice, 1928; d. Paris, 1962) took the European art scene by storm in a prolific but brief career that lasted only from 1954 to 1962. Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers, on view at the Hirshhorn
May 20 through Sept. 12, 2010, is the first major retrospective of the artists work in the United States since 1982. Co-curated by the Hirshhorns deputy director and chief curator Kerry Brougher and Dia Art Foundation director Philippe Vergne, formerly chief curator and deputy director at the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, the exhibition is co-organized by the Hirshhorn and the Walker and developed in full collaboration with the Yves Klein Archives in Paris.
Presenting approximately 200 works, Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers explores the full range of the artists body of work and offers an essential overview and examination of a career that marked a key transition in twentieth-century art. His work embodied an understanding of art beyond a western conception of modernity, beyond the object and beyond traditional notions of what art can be. Kleins short but intense career is a pivotal moment in contemporary art history. His work questioned what art and even society could be in the future, and it provided new pathways leading to Pop Art, Minimalism, conceptual art, installation, and performance, Kerry Brougher explains. The exhibition features examples from all of Kleins major series, from his iconic blue monochromes and Anthropometries to sponge reliefs, Fire Paintings, air architecture projects, Cosmogonies and planetary reliefs as well as many works that have rarely been on view. The installation provides insight into the artists process and conceptual endeavors through an array of ephemera, including sketches, photographs, letters and writings. Several films, including performances and documentaries, further demonstrate Kleins creative practice. As Philippe Vergne observes, I would like that when people leave the exhibition they leap into a void, leaving behind traditional notions of art and representation, but even more importantly, questioning the notion of materiality and materialism in art as well as in their lives. Ultimately, Kleins lesson is about a different way of being together.
Numerous objects are on loan directly from the Yves Klein Archives, with additional loans from the Musée national dart moderne, Centre Pompidou in Paris, Kunstmuseen Krefeld in Krefeld, Germany, The Menil Collection in Houston, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and a host of international private collections, including a rare loan from the Monastery of Saint Rita in Cascia, Italy.
Klein was an innovator and visionary whose goal was no less than to radically reinvent what art could be in the postwar world. Through a diverse practice, which included painting, sculpture, performance, photography, music, architecture and writing as well as plans for projects in theater, dance and cinema, he shifted the focus of art from the material to immaterial sensibility; he levitated art above the weariness induced by the Second World War, resurrecting its avant-garde tendencies, injecting a new sense of spirituality and opening doors for much that followed in the 1960s and beyond.
Self-identified as the painter of space, Klein sought to achieve immaterial sensibility through pure color, primarily an ultramarine blue of his own inventionInternational Klein Blue (IKB). This exhibition begins by examining Kleins early explorations of color with works in pastels, watercolors and more than fifteen colored monochromes created during the mid-to-late 1950s. Several significant blue monochromes, dating from as early as 1955 up through 1961, are on view. Klein further pushed boundaries in his engagement with color and form by using pure pigment in tandem with unconventional materials, such as natural sponges. The sponge, which Klein incorporated into his practice in the late 1950s, became a metaphor, as its porous surface completely absorbed his signature color, giving a material presence to the immaterial.
Among Kleins best-known works are the Anthropometries, begun in 1958. Under the artists direction, nude female models were smeared with IKB paint and used as living brushes to make body prints on prepared sheets of paper. Klein wanted to record the bodys physical energy, and the resulting images represent the models temporary physical presence. More than an expression of the inner psyche of the artist, these paintings offer one method of giving visual presence to a cosmic, spiritual body, which neither photography nor film can fully capture. Seven works from this series are on view, including People Begin to Fly (1961) from The Menil Collection and Untitled Anthropometry (1960) from the Hirshhorns collection, which features the bodies of Klein and his future wife Rotraut Uecker.
In the late 1950s, but most notably in 1961, Klein began to use fire, which he considered the universal principle of expression, as part of his creative process. His Fire Paintings, such as Untitled Fire Painting (1961), in which fire either replaced or was combined with paint, embody concepts of process, transformation, creation, destruction, dissolution and elemental cosmology that were so essential throughout his career. The final galleries of the exhibition include examples from Kleins air architecture projects, including drawings, plans and models for architectural spaces, such as fountains and walls, constructed out of natural elements like air, water and fireelements that were not traditionally associated with architecture.
Klein created what he considered his first artwork when he signed the blue sky above Nice in 1947, making his first attempt to capture the immaterial. In his celebrated 1958 exhibition Specialization of Sensibility in the Raw Material State of Stabilized Pictorial Sensibility, better known as The Void, at Galerie Iris Clert in Paris, Klein went further by emptying the gallery of all artworks and painting the walls white. Among those who attended the renowned exhibition was Albert Camus, who reacted with a notable entry into the visitors album: with the void, full powers. In his famous Leap into the Void (1960) image by Harry Shunk and Janos Kender, which was published Nov. 27, 1960 in the faux newspaper Dimanche, which he created for the second Avant-Garde Art Festival, Klein is actually depicted leaping into space himself; the accompanying text asserts:
to paint space, I must be in position. I must be in space.
Defying the common understanding and definitions of artfrom his experiments with architecture made of air to his leap into the voidKlein aimed to rethink the world in spiritual and aesthetic terms. His philosophy was revolutionary and demonstrated his acute grasp of the contemporary moment, from the horror of the Second World War to the promise of space travel. This presentation of his full oeuvre is essential to discern the shift from modern to contemporary practice and to reveal the extent of the artists influence.